What is the concept of intercession on the Day of Judgment?
First, we need to understand the meaning of word intercession. Intercession means intervening on behalf of another. That means someone who does not deserve something, still gets it due to personal contacts and affiliations. Allah SWT has clearly told in the Holy Quran that Intercession would not be acceptable in any case. Surah no2 Ayah 48 “And fear a Day when no soul will suffice for another soul at all, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be taken from it, nor will they be aided”.
Allah SWT will make all decisions on the basis of merit on the Day of Judgment. Once He SWT has completed the process of judgment for a person, He SWT will grant permission that if anyone has to say something true and just about that person, he can say. For example a sinful person might have done some good deeds and there will be someone to whom he has done the good deed or a witness. That person or witness will be given permission to come forward and talk about the good deed. In fact, this talk would be accepted by Allah SWT to honor the person who would have spoken good about the sinner. We must remember that forgiveness will be granted by Allah SWT on the basis of merit only. These few things will be highlighted in the end to show how Allah SWT does not even ignore small tiny little things/ good gestures and gives them importance. There is no concept of forgiveness and absolution on basis of intercession in the Quran.